History of the RAF in the context of anti-imperialist movements, liberation movements in the 'Third World', student revolts
Compiled by Ron Augustin
May 7 - Viet-Minh forces win the battle of Dien Bien Phu, leading to the withdrawal of France from Indochina. First larger victory by an anticolonial guerilla movement.
Nov 1 - Start of the armed struggle in Algeria with the establishment of the National Liberation Front FLN.
Apr 18-24 - Afro-Asian Conference in Bandung, leading up to the foundation of the Non-Aligned Movement. The term "Third World", linked to its emergence since 1952 by French sociologist Alfred Sauvy, is taken up as a rallying cry.
Jul 26 - Start of the armed struggle in Cuba with Fidel Castro's attack on the Moncada Barracks.
Aug 17 - The Communist Party of Germany (KPD) is prohibited. Subsequently, some 125,000 judicial inquiries will be launched against KPD members and sympathisers.
Mar 6 - After the "Battle of Algiers", the "suicide" of FLN leader Larbi Ben M'hidi in French captivity is pronounced. In the year 2000, General Paul Aussaresses will admit that Larbi Ben M'hidi and his lawyer Ali Boumendjel were tortured to death.
Jul 28 - Foundation of the Situationist International, a group of artists and intellectuals who criticise French colonial policy and who, with their theoretical writings, will strongly influence the student movement in France. Their German Section around the group Spur ("Trace") will influence the extraparliamentary opposition in Germany.
Apr 7 - Under the slogan "Ban the Bomb", the first Easter March against nuclear armament is held in London. In the next ten years, Easter Marches will gain ground across Western Europe.
Jan 1 - Fidel Castro's guerilla smashes Batista's dictatorship and takes over power in Cuba.
Jun 20-22 - Two attempted assassination attacks on Frantz Fanon in Rome.
Feb 1 - The sit-in of four black students at a segregated lunch counter in Greensboro revives a tradition of sit-ins and reinvigorates the Civil Rights Movement in the USA.
Mar 14 - Agreement in the framework of "reparation arrangements" between the Governments of the USA, Germany and Israel over German arms supplies to Israel.
Mar 21 - At a demonstration against apartheid in Sharpeville, Southafrica, 69 people are killed. The Sharpeville massacre leads to the PAC (Pan Africanist Congress) and ANC (African National Congress) taking up arms.
Oct 15 - In Geneva, the leader of the Cameroonese independence movement, Félix Moumié, is murdered by the French secret service SDECE by means of thallium poisoning. He dies on November 3rd. His predecessor as the Secretary-General of the UPC (Union des Populations Camerounaises), Ruben Um Nyombé, had already been murdered on September 13, 1958.
Jan 17 - Assassination of Congo's Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba following a CIA-fostered coup.
Jan 20 - John F Kennedy becomes President of the USA. In May, he orders a substantial increase of military aid to South Vietnam and the deployment of 2,000 counterinsurgency advisers. In an attempt to isolate the newly founded National Liberation Front FLN ("Vietcong"), within two years 13 million people are resettled in concentration camps ("strategic hamlets"), and their villages and fields are destroyed.
Feb 4 - Start of the armed struggle in Angola with the liberation of prisoners at San João by the MPLA.
Apr 17-19 - Failed invasion of Cuba by CIA mercenaries.
May 4 - Start of the Freedom Rides across the USA to enforce the abolition of segregation in public transport.
Jul 19 - Assassination attempt against Jean-Paul Sartre in Paris. A second attempt is launched on January 7, 1962.
Sep 18 - At the Ministry of Defense in London thousands of people participate in a sit-in organised by Bertrand Russell, to protest against nuclear armament.
Nov 6 - Following the German SDS's participation in the ban-the-bomb movement, the SDS (Socialist German Student Association) is expelled from the SPD (Socialdemocratic Party), and membership in both organisations is declared "incompatible".
Dec 8 - Frantz Fanon dies a few days after the publication of his book "The Wretched of the Earth", which will become one of the most important texts for the revolutionary struggles of the 20th century.
June 15 - Port Huron Statement, a platform elaborated at a meeting in Port Huron, Michigan, by the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), criticising segregation and calling for participatory democracy in the USA.
Jun 25 - Start of the armed struggle in Mozambique with the foundation of Frelimo.
Jul 5 - Independence of Algeria.
Aug 5 - Nelson Mandela, leader of ANC's armed wing Umkhonto we Sizwe, is arrested. In 1969 the authorities try to make him escape in order to shoot him "on the run". Several times he is offered to buy his liberty by renouncing armed struggle. On February 11, 1990 he will be freed, when South Africa's apartheid regime is close to collapsing.
Sep 1 - Start of the armed struggle in Eritrea with the foundation of the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF).
Jan 23 - Start of the armed struggle in Guinea-Bissau with an attack by the PAIGC on the Portuguese Tite military barracks.
August 28 - "March on Washington", where 200,000 to 300,000 demonstrators call for "meaningful civil rights laws, a massive federal works program, full and fair employment, decent housing, the right to vote, and adequate integrated education." At the gathering in Washington, Martin Luther King delivers his famous "I Have A Dream" speech.
Nov 22 - John F Kennedy is killed, Lyndon B Johnson becomes President of the USA. Robert McNamara remains Secretary of Defense and in 1964 appoints General William Westmoreland as the Commander-in-Chief for the US forces in Vietnam. On the occasion of the presidential change-over, in Munich and West Berlin the first pamflet of the Situationist-inspired group "Subversive Action" appears.
May 28 - Foundation of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation PLO.
Aug 5 - First major attack against North Vietnam by the US Navy. The North Vietnamese navy is destroyed and the US government's presumption confirmed that the Soviet Union and China will not interfere with the Vietnamese Conflict.
Dec 12-18 - Congo's Prime Minister Moise Tschombé is pelted with eggs and tomatoes by students at his visits to Munich, Dusseldorf and West Berlin.
Jan 3 - Palestinian organisation Al Fatah carries out its first guerilla attacks on Israel.
Feb 7 - Start of "Operation Rolling Thunder", the almost daily bombing of North Vietnam by US aircraft. In South Vietnam, increasingly phosphor bombs and napalm are used. According to the Pentagon, 25,000 bomber sorties are flown against Vietnam and Laos in 1965.
Feb 21 - In New York, one of the country's most important black leaders, Malcolm X, is assassinated.
Apr 1 - Ernesto Che Guevara goes underground in order to commit himself to the antiimperialist struggle. For six months, he leads a guerilla group in Congo, later he will fight a year in Bolivia.
Apr 17 - 25,000 people demonstrate against the Vietnam war in a "March on Washington" organised by SDS.
Apr 28 - Landing of 22,500 US Marines in the Dominican Republic. In order to prevent a "communist take-over", within a year between 6,000 and 10,000 civilians are killed.
Aug 11-16 - During riots in Los Angeles' Watts ghetto, 34 people die.
Aug 25 – Bomb attack against German chemicals manufacturer Bayer in Uruguay for its implication in the Vietnam war. It is the first attack by the Tupamaros, who are one of the first movements to develop urban guerilla.
Oct 1 - Start of a CIA-sponsored coup and anticommunist massacre in Indonesia. Within six months, one million people are killed.
Oct 29 - Assassination of Mehdi Ben Barka in Paris in a joint action by the Moroccan secret service, the CIA and Mossad. Ben Barka was responsible for the preparation of the Tricontinental Conference in January 1966.
Nov 27 - 40,000 people demonstrate against the Vietnam war in the year's second "March on Washington".
Jan 3-15 - Tricontinental Conference in Havana, enlargement of the Organisation for the Solidarity of the African and Asian Peoples to Latin America (OSPAAAL). Amilcar Cabral delivers a speech on "The Weapon of Theory".
Mar 26 - In New York, 100,000 people demonstrate against the Vietnam war. In 1966, demonstrations against the Vietnam war are on the increase all over the world.
May 16 - Start of the Cultural Revolution in China.
Jun 16 - In Greenwood, Mississippi, Stokely Carmichael delivers his first speech with the famous demand for Black Power.
Jun 30 - In North Vietnam, US aircraft focus on the destruction of the Red River delta dikesystem as well as Hanoi's and Haiphong's supply bases. For the first time, the strategic B-52 bombers are used, which from the end of August will fly daily sorties. According to the Pentagon, 79,000 bomber sorties are flown over Vietnam in 1966.
Oct 15 - Foundation of the Black Panther Party in the USA with a 10-Points Program.
Dec 1 - In Germany, the Grand Coalition of CDU (Christian Democrats) and SPD (Social Democrats) is formed.
Dec 10 - At the end of the "Vietnam Weeks" organised by the German SDS, Rudi Dutschke proposes the foundation of an extraparliamentary opposition, later to be known as the APO.
Feb 29 - Foundation of the Kommune I in West Berlin.
Apr 5 - Arrests and media hunt in connection with the "pudding attack" which the Kommune I had planned against US Vice President Hubert Humphrey's visit to West Berlin.
Apr 15 - Under Martin Luther King's leadership, more than 350,000 people demonstrate against the Vietnam war in the "March on New York". In 1967, there are demonstrations against US imperialism around the world.
Apr 16 - Publication of Ernesto Che Guevara's message to the Tricontinentale on the creation of "two, three, many Vietnams".
Apr 18 - World boxing champion Cassius Clay, alias Muhammad Ali, refuses military draft because of the Vietnam war. His boxing license will be withdrawn until 1970.
Apr 21 - Coup by the military Junta in Greece, establishment of a NATO-sponsored military dictatorship.
May 2-10 - First session of the Russell-Tribunal in Stockholm, investigating US war crimes in Vietnam. Members include Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Vladimir Dedijer, Lelio Basso, Stokely Carmichael, Isaac Deutscher, Laurent Schwartz, Peter Weiss, James Baldwin, Wolfgang Abendroth and others.
May 30 - Start of the Biafra war.
Jun 2 - At a demonstration against the visit of the Shah of Iran, demonstrators are beaten up brutally by police and Iranian undercover agents. Benno Ohnesorg is killed by a police officer. The police officer, Karl-Heinz Kurras, will initially be acquitted, then sentenced. He will spend four months in prison but remains on the police force, and, at his request, receives his pistol back out of fear for revenge when in 1971 Petra Schelm is killed.
Jun 5-10 - During the "Six Day War", Israel occupies Gaza, East-Jerusalem and parts of Syria and Jordan.
Jul 15-30 - At the "Dialectics of Liberation" Congress in London, possibilities of antiimperialist struggle are discussed for two weeks. Speakers: David Cooper, Ronald Laing, Herbert Marcuse, Paul Sweezy, Stokely Carmichael, Julian Beck, Allen Ginsberg and others.
Jul 23 - Antiwar demonstrations lead to an uprise in Newark. In confrontations with the National Guard, 27 people are killed and 1,100 injured. Riots follow in more than 50 cities. During the "12th Street Riots" in Detroit, 43 people are killed and 2,000 injured.
Jul 31-Aug 10 - First Conference of the Latin American Solidarity Organisation (OLAS) in Havana. Breaking away from the pro-Soviet communist parties, the conference declares its support to armed struggle. Stokely Carmichael is received as a guest of honour.
Oct 9 - Assassination of Ernesto Che Guevara in Bolivia.
Oct 21 - In front of the Pentagon near Washington, 250,000 people demonstrate against the Vietnam war.
In West Berlin, pamflet rockets are being shot at the US Army barracks, with which soldiers are called to desert because of the Vietnam war. A bomb prepared near the America House in West Berlin doesn't explode. According to the Pentagon, 108,000 bomber sorties are flown over Vietnam in 1967.
Nov 30 - The British colonial troops withdraw from South Yemen earlier than planned, after the National Liberation Front extended its guerillawarfare to the urban areas of Aden.
Jan 30 - The South Vietnamese liberation front FLN starts its Tet offensive. It will last two months and will force the US government to understand that it cannot win this war. President Johnson decides to stop bombing Hanoi and to withdraw his candidacy to the presidency. Several times during 1968, the Pentagon demands the use of nuclear bombs in Vietnam. All year, demonstrations against the Vietnam war are taking place across the globe.
Feb 1 - In Brasil, Carlos Marighella and Joaquim Ferreira start the guerilla movement ALN (Ação Libertadora Nacional).
Feb 17-18 - In West Berlin's Technical University, the International Vietnam Congress takes place. Speakers include Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, Rudi Dutschke, Bahman Nirumand, Gaston Salvatore, Peter Weiss, Tariq Ali, Robin Blackburn, Erich Fried, Ernest Mandel and Ekkehart Krippendorff among others. The organisers are informed that Berlin's US Commander issued a firing order against the demonstration after the congress. Following a final approval of the demonstration, 12,000 people participate in the closing rally.
Feb 21 - At a counter-rally organised by the Senate of West Berlin, the Federation of Trade Unions and Springer Newspaper Publishers, 80,000 people demonstrate against the student movement and for the US government's Vietnam policy. Several student "suspects" are beaten up by demonstrators carrying transparents with slogans like "Dutschke People's Enemy Number One" and "Berlin is not Saigon".
Apr 3 - During the night, fire bombs explode in two department stores in Frankfurt. The attack is meant as a protest against the public opinion’s indifference with regard to the Vietnam war. Six months later Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Thorwald Proll and Horst Söhnlein will be sentenced to three years in prison. Appeal proceedings liberate them provisionally on June 13, 1969; in November 1969, however, the judgement is confirmed and Andreas Baader and Gudrun Ensslin go underground. Andreas Baader will be arrested on April 4, 1970, and liberated six weeks later.
Apr 4 - Assassination of Martin Luther King, triggering revolts in 125 US American cities. 21,000 soldiers and 34,000 National Guards are deployed in days of confrontation. Result: 46 dead, 2,600 injured, 21,000 arrested.
Apr 6 - Black Panther Bobby Hutton is killed by police in Oakland.
Apr 11 - In an assassination attempt, Rudi Dutschke is severely wounded. In West Berlin, a "Springer-Blockade" is organised. In cities across Germany and Europe, attacks on Springer are organised, leading to heavy confrontations with the police. In Munich a demonstrator and a press photographer are killed. It takes years for Dutschke to recover from his injuries, and on December 24, 1979 he dies as a result of these.
May 5 - In Saigon, the FLN kills the First Secretary of the German Embassy, Hasso Freiherr Rüdt von Collenberg.
May 6 - After several weeks of conflict at Nanterre University, a first larger student demonstration takes place in Paris. After several strikes and the famous "Night of the Barricades" of May 10, a 24-hour general strike is held on May 13. A demonstration of one million workers and students in Paris leads to the occupation of Sorbonne University. For two weeks, 10 million workers are on strike. Factory occupations and demonstrations last until mid-June. Mass demonstrations, street fights, university and factory occupations occur all over the world in the months between May and August 1968.
May 11 - In Bonn 70,000 people demonstrate against new "Emergency Laws" in the making. Nevertheless, these will be issued by parliament on May 30.
Jul 23 - On the way from Rome to Tel Aviv, the People's Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) for the first time hijacks an El Al plane and takes it to Algeria. Several Palestinians are freed from Israeli prisons in exchange for the passengers.
Aug 5 - In Los Angeles, Black Panthers Steve Bartholemew, Robert Lawrence and Tommy Lewis are killed by police.
Aug 21 - In Prag, Warsaw Pact troops suppress the "Czech Spring".
Aug 26-29 - During the Democratic Party's Chicago Convention, demonstrators are beaten up brutally by police.
Sep 13 - In a speech at the 23rd SDS delegates conference in Frankfurt the concept of the "Action Council for the Liberation of Women" is presented. As the conference continues without discussion, a tomato is thrown at one of the SDS leaders. In the following months, Action and Women's Councils are founded throughout Germany.
Sep 26 - In Essen, the new German Communist Party, DKP, is founded.
Oct 2 - At demonstrations in Mexico City, 300 students and bystanders are killed by the military. At the following Olympic Games, two of the medal winners, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, raise their fists in a Black Power salute. Immediately, IOC President Avery Brundage expels them from the Olympic Village.
Nov 4 - In West Berlin, anger erupts in the "Tegeler Weg Battle", when attorney Horst Mahler is threatened with exclusion from the bar because of his participation in the "Springer-Blockade".
Nov 8 - Beate Klarsfeld slaps Chanceler Georg Kiesinger in order to draw attention to his nazi past. She is sentenced to one year in prison.
Jan 20 - Richard M Nixon becomes President of the USA. His Security Advisor will be Henry Kissinger, his Defense Advisor Donald Rumsfeld.
Jan 24 - Following university occupations in Barcelona and Madrid, a state of emergency is proclaimed in Spain. More than 1,000 students are arrested.
Jan 30 - Mozambican Frelimo leader Eduardo Mondlane is murdered by the Portuguese wing of NATO's secret organisation Gladio. His successor, Samora Machel, will die on October 19, 1986 in a suspicious plane crash at the South African border.
Feb 26 - Failed bomb attack against the visit of Richard Nixon in West Berlin. Demonstrations against his visit and three months later against a US military parade are violent but remain small.
April - At 543,400, the number of US troops in Vietnam has reached its highest level in the history of the Vietnam war.
Jun 20 - Following several splits in the US American SDS, the Weathermen organisation, later Weather Underground, is established. They will go underground and start armed struggle in December.
Jul 15-21 - "Red Prison Week" and "Prison Camp" in Ebrach near Nuremberg.
Jul 27 - Seven German army draft resisters, who fled to West Berlin because of its special status, are deported to West Germany after their arrest.
Aug 12-15 - Street fights in Derry in Northern Ireland lead to a split in the IRA and the Provisional IRA's resumption of armed struggle.
Aug 29 - On the way from Rome to Athens, a TWA plane is hijacked by a PFLP commando led by Leila Khaled and re-routed via Haifa to Damascus. The plane is blown up and the passengers are exchanged against prisoners of war in Israel.
Sep 2 - Vietnamese President Ho Chi Minh dies.
Sep 2 - In Germany, spontaneous strikes burst out in the mining, metal, energy and car industries.
Sep 6 - Four airplanes are hijacked by the PFLP. Three planes are blown up at an airstrip near Amman. The hijack of one El Al plane on the way from Amsterdam to New York ends with the killing of Nicaraguan Patrick Arguello and the arrest of Leila Khaled in London. Little later, Khaled will be freed by another PFLP plane hijack. In total, Palestinian organisations are carrying out some 3,000 guerilla operations against Israel in 1969.
Oct 8-11 - With the dictum "Bring the War Home", the Weathermen organise a street battle in Chicago. During the four "Days of Rage" one student dies in the confrontations with police.
Oct 21 - In Germany, a Coalition Government is formed by SPD and FDP, with Willy Brandt as Chancelor.
Nov 3 - US President Nixon confirms to have started a policy of "Vietnamisation" as early as March 1969, embracing the gradual retreat of US troops and transfer of responsibilities to the South Vietnamese military. Nixon doesn't mention the Phoenix Programme, with which 30,000 presumed FLN cadres are identified and assassinated.
Nov 4 - Carlos Marighella is shot by police in São Paulo. The following year, his "Manual of the Urban Guerilla" will be published in several languages.
Nov 12 - Journalist Seymour Hersh publicises the My Lai massacre of March 1968.
Nov 15 - "National Mobilisation To End The War": more than one million people demonstrate in Washington, 100,000 in San Francisco.
Dec 4 - In Chicago, Black Panther members Fred Hampton and Mark Clark are killed in their sleep during a raid by FBI and local police.
Dec 12 - Amidst the culmination of labour struggles during Italy's "Hot Autumn", four banks in Rome and Milan are bombed. At the explosions in Milan's Rural Bank, 16 people are killed and 84 injured. A huge media campaign renders the Left responsible for the attacks. On December 15, the accused anarchist Pinelli "falls" out of the window of Superintendent Calabresi's office. Only years later it will be revealed that the attacks were perpetrated in the framework of the "strategy of tension" by intelligence agencies reporting to NATO's secret organisation Gladio.
Feb 12 - In Heidelberg, the Socialist Patients Collective (SPK) is founded with the dictum "turn illness into a weapon".
Mar 21 - In Germany, the SDS is declared dissolved.
The last SDS chapter in Heidelberg will be forbidden on June 24 by the Secretary of the Interior.
Mar 31 - In Guatemala, German Ambassador Karl Graf von Spreti is abducted by the FAR guerilla movement. They demand the liberation of prisoners from FAR. After the government's refusal (probably because the prisoners had already been killed), von Spreti is killed on May 5.
Apr 30 - President Nixon announces the US invasion of Cambodia, leading to protests and demonstrations worldwide.
May 4 - At a demonstration at Kent University in Ohio, the US National Guard kills 4 students.
May 14 - At a demonstration at Jackson State University in Mississippi, police kill 2 students.
May 14 - In an operation at the Central Institute for Social Affairs in West Berlin, Andreas Baader is liberated from captivity. Institute employee Georg Linke is injured by a bullet. Over the next few weeks, two declarations are published in the Agit 883 journal with the dictum "Build the Red Army!".
May 20 - In Germany, a legal pardon is issued for thousands who had been sentenced to up to 9 months in prison for "demonstration offences". This so-called "amnesty" was an SPD election promise to defuse the Student Movement.
Jun 8 - The first people of the later Red Army Faction depart for a two months' military training in Jordan.
Aug 7 - In California, Jonathan Jackson, brother of imprisoned "Soledad Brother" and Black Panther George Jackson, takes hostages to free his brother and is killed, with the hostages, by police. Angela Davis is charged with having provided one of the weapons, but is later acquitted.
Sep 15 - Formation of the Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse, BR) in Italy. First armed attacks on foremen and police informers at Fiat, Siemens and Pirelli.
Sep 17 - Beginning of the "Black September" massacres in Jordan. In case the Jordan military would fail, Israel masses its troops at the border, while the US Navy keeps 12,000 paratroopers and the Sixth Fleet ready. Between 4,000 and 10,000 Palestinians are killed by Jordan military.
Sep 19 - In Frankfurt one of the first housing squats takes place. Although from 1969 there are squats in several other cities, the movement reaches its summit in Hamburg and Frankfurt during the years 1973 and 1974.
Sep 29 - In West Berlin three banks are robbed to finance the underground movements.
Oct 8 - In West Berlin, Ingrid Schubert, Brigitte Asdonk, Monika Berberich, Irene Goergens and Horst Mahler are arrested as the first ones from the Red Army Faction. Months later they will be convicted to sentences of 6 1/2 to 14 years in prison.
Nov 16, 21 - Burglaries at two City Halls yield quantities of passports, ID cards and rubber stamps.
Dec 22 - Ali Jansen and Ulrich Scholze are arrested in Nuremberg.
Jan 15 - In Kassel, two banks are robbed by the Red Army Faction.
Apr 1 - In Hamburg, ELN-Member Monika Ertl kills one of the officers responsible for Che Guevara's death, the Bolivian Consul Roberto Quintanilla Pereira.
Apr 24-May 6 - Following anti-war demonstrations, martial law is proclaimed over Washington DC. More than 12,000 people are arrested.
May 1 - At May 1 demonstrations across Germany, the RAF's first journal is distributed, "The Concept of Urban Guerilla".
May 6 -Astrid Proll is arrested in Hamburg. Little later she will be imprisoned in Cologne prison's dead wing.
Jun 13 - The New York Times starts to publish the secret Pentagon Papers, which further questions the US government's credibility with regard to its official Vietnam policy.
Jun 21 - Helmut Pohl is arrested. In 1973 he will be released from prison for the first time.
Jun 24 - Police undertake raids and arrests against the SPK, which will be continued till July 20.
Jul 13 - The SPK is dissolved.
Jul 15 - Petra Schelm is killed and Werner Hoppe is arrested during the first larger sweep search against the Red Army Faction, "Operation Kora" in Hamburg particularly aimed at finding Ulrike Meinhof.
Aug 21 - In San Quentin prison, George Jackson is killed, supposedly during an "attempt to escape".
Sep 1 - Horst Herold becomes President of Germany's Federal Police (Bundeskriminalamt, BKA).
Sep 9-13 - Prison revolt in New York's Attica prison. 43 prisoners are killed by police.
Oct 22 - In Hamburg, police officer Norbert Schmid is killed during an attempt to control three people. Margrit Schiller is arrested. Gerhard Müller, who shot the police officer, gets away. Later he becomes the prosecution's "Crown Witness", in exchange for which the charges against him are dropped.
Nov 28 - The Palestinian organisation Black September kills Jordan Prime Minister Wasfi Tall in Cairo. Three weeks later they wound Jordan's Ambassador Zaid Rifai in London.
Dec 4 - At a raid in West Berlin, Georg von Rauch is killed by police. Two days later, an empty hospital building will be squatted and turned into the Georg-von-Rauch-House.
Dec 22 - Following a bank robbery in Kaiserslautern by the RAF, police officer Herbert Schoner is killed in a shootout.
January - Several militant groups merge into the June 2nd Movement.
Jan 28 - Chaired by Chanceler Willy Brandt, the Conference of Ministers of Interior Affairs issues the "radicals decree", with which more than 300,000 applicants and employees in public service will be screened.
Jan 30 - Bloody Sunday in Derry, Northern Ireland: 14 people are killed by British military.
Feb 2 - Bomb attack on the British Yachtclub of West Berlin by the June 2nd Movement. Attacks on Police and the Judiciary are to follow in March and May.
Feb 6 - The Palestinian organisation Black September destroys three Gulf Oil installations in the Netherlands. The same day, they kill five Jordanians in Germany who were accused of collaboration with Israel. Two days later, they carry out a bomb attack on a Hamburg factory manufacturing motor parts for Israel. On February 22, they destroy an Exxon pipeline near Hamburg.
Feb 21 - In Ludwigshafen, a bank is robbed by the RAF.
Mar 1 - In Herrenberg near Tübingen, 17 year old apprentice Richard Epple is killed by police during a raid against the RAF.
Mar 2 - In Augsburg, police arrest Carmen Roll and kill Thomas Weissbecker.
Mar 3 - In Hamburg, police arrest Manfred Grashof and Wolfgang Grundmann. At the ensuing shootout, Manfred Grashof is injured and police superinspector Hans Eckhardt is killed.
Mar 14 - Near Milan, publisher and founder of the GAP (Partisan Action Group) Giangiacomo Feltrinelli is killed by a prematurely detonated bomb.
May 1 - At May 1 demonstrations, the RAF's second journal is distributed, "Urban Guerilla and Class Struggle".
May 11 - Bomb attack on the US Army's 5th Corps Headquarters in Frankfurt by the RAF's Petra Schelm Commando. US officer Paul Bloomquist is killed, 13 soldiers are injured.
May 12 - Bomb attacks on police headquarters in Augsburg and Munich by the RAF's Thomas Weissbecker Commando. Five policemen are injured.
May 15 - Bomb attack on Federal Judge Wolfgang Buddenberg's car in Karlsruhe by the RAF's Manfred Grashof Commando. Buddenberg's wife is injured.
May 19 - The Weather Underground carry out a bomb attack at the Pentagon, after the USA mined North Vietnam's harbours and intensified air attacks on rural areas.
May 19 - At a bomb attack on the Springer premises in Hamburg by the RAF's June 2nd Commando, 17 employees are injured.
May 24 - Bomb attack on the 7th US Army's Heidelberg Headquarters by the RAF's July 15th Commando. Three US soldiers are killed, five injured.
May 31 - The German Federal Police, BKA, initiates the largest sweep search against the RAF, "Operation Washout".
May 31 - A recorded message by Ulrike Meinhof is played at a Red Aid teach-in in Frankfurt.
Jun 1 - Jan Raspe, Holger Meins and Andreas Baader are arrested in Frankfurt. Andreas Baader is injured at the ensuing shootout.
Jun 2 - Full-scale alarm in Stuttgart following a smear campaign in the media using a forged statement of May 27 claiming that the RAF would have three bombs explode in the city. The group's statement of May 29, denying its involvement and sent to the media, is suppressed by the latter.
Jun 7-15 - Gudrun Ensslin is arrested in Hamburg, Brigitte Mohnhaupt and Bernhard Braun are arrested in West Berlin, Ulrike Meinhof and Gerhard Müller in Hannover.
Jun 25 - The British tradesman Ian McLeod is killed by police in Stuttgart during a raid against the RAF.
Jun 29 - Katharina Hammerschmidt, who was wanted for supporting the RAF, surrenders to police. She dies of a tumor on June 29, 1975, in a West Berlin hospital, as a result of failing treatment in prison until her release in January 1974.
Jul 9 - Irmgard Möller and Klaus Jünschke are arrested in Offenbach.
Jul 26 - In Hamburg, Werner Hoppe is sentenced to 10 years in prison.
Aug 5 - The Palestinian organisation Black September destroys a petrol depot in Triest.
Sep 5 - Eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team in Munich are taken hostage by a Black September commando. Instead of following the demand for liberation of prisoners from Israeli jails, a diversion takes place at Furstenfeldbruck airport, in which the hostages and one police officer die. Three of the eight Black September members survive and will be freed from prison by a plane hijack on October 29. On September 8, in "retaliation" to the Munich attack, the Israeli airforce bombs ten Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan. On September 16, three Israeli tank convoys destroy more than ten villages in South Lebanon. On October 24, the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad starts a series of letter bomb attacks, killing or wounding several Palestinians across the world. In the following twenty years, a special branch of Mossad kills around 25 Palestinian leaders.
Sep 26 - Establishment of the GSG-9, a special "antiterror unit" of the German border police.
Oct 3 - The German government outlaws the Palestinian Workers Union GUPA and the Palestinian Students Union GUPS. Hundreds of Palestinians are prosecuted or expelled.
November - Distribution of the RAF's third journal, "Black September's attack in Munich - On the strategy of antiimperialist struggle".
Dec 8 - In Israel, authorities confirm the arrest of about 100 members of an illegal group which calls itself Common Organisation of Jews and Arabs. They are tortured and sentenced to up to 17 years in prison for contacts with Palestinian organisations.
Jan 17-Feb 16 - First hungerstrike of the prisoners from the RAF. Forty political prisoners demand the abolition of isolation detention and the abolition of the dead wing in Cologne-Ossendorf. For five days, February 9 through 14, Andreas Baader is kept without drinking water. On February 9, Ulrike Meinhof is moved from the dead wing to another cell.
Jan 20 - In Guinea-Bissau, PAIGC leader Amilcar Cabral is killed with the support of the Portuguese secret service PIDE.
Feb 9-12 - Solidarity hungerstrike by attorneys of prisoners from the RAF in front of the Federal Court in Karlsruhe.
May 8-Jun 29 - Second hungerstrike. Eighty political prisoners demand the abolition of isolation detention. For ten days, from May 24 to June 4, Andreas Baader is kept without drinking water. Across Germany, local Committees Against Isolation-Torture are established.
May 23 - The violent clearing by a mobile police unit of the squatted house Eckhoffstrasse 39 in Hamburg and the ensuing criminalisation of the squatters becomes a turning point in Germany's housing struggle.
Jul 13 - At the request of the Federal Prosecutor, Ulrike Meinhof is ordered to have her brain examined by means of a scintigraphy, in case of resistance also under forced anaesthesia. On August 28, the request is withdrawn after numerous public protests.
Jul 16 - First BKA raids in the cells of the prisoners from the RAF.
Jul 24 - Ron Augustin is arrested in Lingen.
Sep 11 - In Chili, President Salvador Allende is killed in a military coup led by General Pinochet. In the next seven years, at least 3,000 people are tortured and killed.
Oct 6-22 - Arab-Israeli war, start of a five months oil embargo that will lead to the restructuring of the global oil market.
Nov 16-17 - The first operations by the Revolutionary Cells (RZ) are attacks against two ITT buildings, because of the multinational company's involvement with the military coup in Chili.
Nov 17 - Following an uprising at the Polytechneion in Athens, 24 students are killed.
Nov 22 - In West Berlin, Ali Jansen is sentenced to 10 years in prison.
Dec 20 - "Operation Ogro": in Madrid, Spanish Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco, General Franco's right hand, is killed with a remotely controlled bomb by Basque organisation ETA's Txikia Commando.
Dec 21 - Ulrike Meinhof is again transferred to the dead wing of Cologne-Ossendorf prison. On February 5, 1974, Gudrun Ensslin is taken to the dead wing. They will stay there until their transfer to Stammheim on April 28, 1974.
Feb 4 - Arrest of Helmut Pohl, Ilse Stachowiak, Christa Eckes and Eberhard Becker in Hamburg, Margrit Schiller, Kai Allnach and Wolfgang Beer in Frankfurt, Axel Achterrath and Ekkehard Blenk in Amsterdam.
Feb 4 - Astrid Proll is released because of her physical and mental condition, and flees to friends in the UK until she'll be arrested again on September 15, 1978. On February 22, 1980, she is sentenced to 5 1/2 years and released.
Mar 15-May 28 - The media are spreading rumours that the RAF would have planned to commit rocket attacks on soccer stadiums during the World Cup and to poison a city's water supplies with cyanide. The rumours are denied by the prisoners from the RAF in a statement during the trial of Brigitte Mohnhaupt and Bernhard Braun.
Apr 25 - In Portugal, Caetano's dictatorship is ended by a military coup that will be known as the "Carnation Revolution". Between June 25 and November 1, 1974, the Portuguese colonies obtain independence.
May 16 - Chancelor Willy Brandt steps down. His successor is Helmut Schmidt.
May 21 - Taxidriver Günther Jendrian is killed by police in Munich during a raid against the RAF.
May 31 - Siegfried Buback succeeds Ludwig Martin as Germany's Chief Federal Prosecutor.
Jul 23 - After a failed coup in Cyprus, the Greek military Junta falls. Greece's parliamentary republic is re-instated on December 13.
Aug 9 - US President Nixon steps down after the Watergate scandal. His successor is Gerald Ford. Ford proclaims legal immunity for Nixon and a limited amnesty for those who escaped military draft during the Vietnam war by hiding or emigrating. This amnesty will not be extended till January 21, 1977, when Jimmy Carter takes office as US President.
September (?) - In West Berlin, Brigitte Mohnhaupt and Bernhard Braun are sentenced to each 4 1/2 years.
Sep 13 - Third hungerstrike, until February 5, 1975. In the trial of Andreas Baader's liberation, Ulrike Meinhof reads the hungerstrike demands. They are published, together with her declaration in trial and a provisory fighting program for prisoners, as the RAF's fourth journal.
Sep 27 - In a public statement by Monika Berberich in the name of the prisoners, Horst Mahler is expelled from the RAF.
Nov 9 - Holger Meins dies during the hungerstrike in Wittlich prison. Two days later 15.000 people demonstrate in West Berlin against Holger Meins' death and in support of the hungerstrike. On Nov 18, More than 5.000 people attend his funeral. For days, protests against his death are marked by more than 50 demonstrations and riots across Germany and Europe.
Nov 10 - Following an attempt to kidnap West Berlin's Chief Judge Günter von Drenkmann, the latter is killed by a commando of the June 2nd Movement.
Nov 13 - The PLO obtains UN Observer Status and Yasser Arafat holds his first speech at the UN General Assembly.
Nov 26 - Nationwide man hunt in Germany with numerous road blocks and house searches.
Nov 29 - In West Berlin, Horst Mahler and Ulrike Meinhof are sentenced to 14 and 8 years in prison.
Dec 7 - Bomb attack at the Central Station of Bremen. Both the RAF and the RZ dissociate themselves from the attack.
Jan 27 - Establishment of the US Senate's Church Committee to examine illegal activities by the CIA and other US intelligence agencies. In the course of 1975, several assassinations and assassination attempts by the CIA are published. The US government establishes several other committees that will lead to the restructuring of US intelligence agencies under Presidents Ford and Bush Sr until 1980.
Feb 17-Apr 24 - At a trial in a special court room annexed to Buckeburg's prison, legal procedures against Ron Augustin are sped up. He is sentenced to 6 years in prison.
Feb 18 - The first occupation of the Whyl construction site is the start of a large movement against nuclear power plants, which in the years to follow mobilises mass demonstrations of up to 100,000 people in Brokdorf, Kalkar and Gorleben.
Feb 27 - West Berlin's CDU Chairman Peter Lorenz is kidnapped by the June 2nd Movement. In exchange for Lorenz, five prisoners are liberated.
Apr 13 - Start of the civil war in Lebanon which will last until 1991 at least, and which to a large extent will determine PLO policy.
Apr 22 - A court in Stuttgart excludes attorney Klaus Croissant from defending Andreas Baader. On May 2 and 13, also Kurt Groenewold and Hans-Christian Ströbele are excluded from Andreas Baader's defense. In November, other attorneys are excluded from defending their clients.
Apr 24 - The German Embassy in Stockholm is occupied by the Holger Meins Commando, who demand the liberation of 26 prisoners from the RAF. Embassy officers Heinz Hillegaart and Baron Andreas von Mirbach are killed. The German Government ignores the demands. An attempted police raid is followed by an explosion, and one of the commando's members, Ulrich Wessel, is killed. Hanna Krabbe, Karl-Heinz Dellwo, Bernd Rössner and Lutz Taufer are arrested. Siegfried Hausner is heavily wounded by rifle butts and dies on May 4 in Stammheim prison. Immediately after the start of the occupation, all prisoners from the RAF are searched and deprived from their radios, newspapers and any contacts.
Apr 30 - Final victory of the FLN in Vietnam following the siege of Saigon.
May 9 - At a shootout in Cologne, Werner Sauber and police officer Walter Pauli die. Karl-Heinz Roth and Roland Otto are heavily wounded and arrested.
May 10 - Attorney Siegfried Haag is arrested briefly, his files for the Stammheim trial are seized. The next day, he decides to go underground.
May 16 - In the run-up to the Stammheim trial, the media spread rumours that the RAF would plan a poison attack against the federal parliament.
May 21 - Start of the trial against Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Ulrike Meinhof and Jan Raspe in Stuttgart-Stammheim.
Jun 23 - Attorneys Klaus Croissant and Hans-Christian Ströbele are arrested, their offices and appartments as well as those of attorney Marieluise Becker are searched, and loads of legal files for the Stammheim trial are seized. Legal procedures against the attorneys are justified with their public appearances in the media. Few days prior to the arrests, attorney Croissant had organised a press conference with regard to the death of Siegfried Hausner.
Sep 2 - Start of the trial against Manfred Grashof, Klaus Jünschke and Wolfgang Grundmann in Kaiserslautern.
Sep 13-Nov 12 - Bomb attacks at the Central Stations of Hamburg, Nuremberg and Cologne. Both the RAF and the RZ dissociate themselves from the attack in separate statements.
Nov 20 - Spanish dictator Franco dies. A three-year "transition period from fascism to democracy" starts.
Nov 25 - Surinam becomes independent. Colonialism, however, has not come to an end in the world.
Dec 16-24 - Across Germany, bookshops, publishers, printers and private apartments are searched at the instigation of the Federal Police and the Federal Prosecutor's Office in order to seize literature "propagating violence".
Jan 8 - In China, Prime Minister Zhou Enlai dies.
Jan 13-14 - Declaration of the defendants in the Stammheim trial.
Mar 16 - In Hamburg, Irmgard Möller and Gerhard Müller are sentenced to 4 1/2 and 10 years in prison. Gerhard Müller will be released before his term, Irmgard Möller will be charged another time and sentenced to life.
May 9 - In a cell of Stuttgart-Stammheim prison, Ulrike Meinhof is found dead. In the following weeks, numerous bomb attacks, demonstrations and riots protesting her death take place across Germany and Europe. In the prison of Frankfurt-Preungesheim, 36 women protest against her death with a three-day hungerstrike.
Jun 18 - Following a firebomb attack on the office of Margrit Schiller's state attorney in Hamburg, his secretary Johanna Keller dies. Later, a firebomb attack is committed against the car of a state attorney in the Dusseldorf trial. The prisoners from the RAF dissociate themselves from these attacks.
Jun 27 - A mixed commando of RZ and PFLP-GC hijacks a plane coming from Tel Aviv via Athens. They demand the liberation of 53 prisoners from Israel, Kenya, France, Switzerland and Germany. On July 4, an Israeli military squad raids the plane at Entebbe airport. The commando's four members, three supporters, three hostages, the squad's commander and 45 Ugandan soldiers are killed. Immediately after the start of the hijack, all prisoners from the RAF are searched and deprived from their radios, newspapers and any contacts.
Jul 7 - Four prisoners from the RAF and the June 2nd Movement escape from Lehrter Strasse prison in West Berlin. Monika Berberich is arrested again on July 21.
Jul 16 - Attorney Croissant is again arrested, after he announced the establishment of an International Commission for the Examination of Ulrike Meinhof's Death.
Aug 18-19 - Bookshops and publishing houses across Germany are raided for "suspicion of support to a criminal organisation". Numerous books and magazines are seized.
Sep 9 - The Chairman of China's Communist Party, Mao Zedong, dies. On October 10, his successor Hua Guofeng has the "Gang of Four" around Mao's widow Jiang Qing arrested, thus ending the Chinese Cultural Revolution.
Nov 30 - Siegfried Haag and Roland Mayer are arrested near Butzbach.
Dec 14 - Following a bank robbery in Vienna, Waltraud Liewald is arrested. Two months later, she will be sentenced to 15 years in prison.
Jan 23 - At the Stammheim trial, Chief Judge Theodor Prinzing is expelled from his position for partiality, following the 85th legal request to do so.
Feb 8 - Brigitte Mohnhaupt is released from prison.
Mar 17 - Local Secretaries of the Interior and Justice Departments, Karl Schieß and Traugott Bender, admit that bugs installed by intelligence agencies BND and Verfassungsschutz have been used to eavesdrop the prisoners in Stammheim prison. They have the media spread rumours that the prisoners in Stammheim would have planned kidnaps at children's playing grounds.
Mar 29-May 1 - Fourth hungerstrike. The prisoners from the RAF demand to be regrouped into groups large enough to allow for social interaction.
Apr 7 - Chief Federal Prosecutor Siegfried Buback and two attendants are killed in Karlsruhe by the RAF's Ulrike Meinhof Commando. Immediately, all prisoners from the RAF are searched and deprived from their radios, newspapers and any contacts for several days.
Apr 13 - During a raid against the RAF near Lahn-Wetzlar, shepherd Helmut Schlaudraff is killed by police.
Apr 28 - In the Stammheim trial, the three remaining defendants are sentenced to life in prison.
Apr 28 - Bomb attack at the Federal Chamber of Physicians in Cologne, the first attack by the female guerilla group "Rote Zora", who emerged from the RZ.
May 3 - At a shootout in Singen, Günter Sonnenberg is seriously injured by a shot in the head. Verena Becker is arrested.
May 13 - Irene Goergens is released from prison.
Jun 2 - At a trial in Kaiserslautern, Manfred Grashof and Klaus Jünschke are sentenced to life, Wolfgang Grundmann to four years in prison.
Jul 1 - The RAF captures several hand guns at a hold-up in an arms shop in Frankfurt.
Jul 11 - Attorney Klaus Croissant quits Germany and requests political asylum in France. He will be arrested on September 30 and expelled to Germany where he will be sentenced to 2 1/2 years in prison.
Jul 20 - In Dusseldorf, Hanna Krabbe, Karl-Heinz Dellwo, Lutz Taufer and Bernd Rössner are each sentenced to two life sentences.
Jul 30 - The RAF kills Dresdner Bank President Jürgen Ponto in his house in Oberursel, following an attempt to kidnap him. Immediately, all prisoners from the RAF are searched and deprived from their radios, newspapers and any contacts.
Aug 9-Sep 2 - After a number of provocations and an assault on the group of prisoners in Stammheim, the prisoners from the RAF hold their fifth hungerstrike. The group in Stammheim, which had been enlarged a few months earlier, is reduced to four again.
Aug 15 - Bomb attack on the office of the attorneys in Stuttgart. The office had been searched several times and was under permanent police observation.
Aug 25 - In Karlsruhe, a rocket launching pad is found. It was directed at the Federal Prosecutor's building as a "warning" by the RAF.
Aug 29 - Germany's Federal Prosecutor orders the seizure of legal documents addressed at the European Commission for Human Rights in Strassburg, that were to be delivered before the expiration of the deadline.
Aug 30 - In Stuttgart, attorney Armin Newerla is arrested. Further legal documents are seized.
Sep 5 - In Cologne, the President of the German Employers Federation, Hanns Martin Schleyer, is abducted by the RAF's Siegfried Hausner Commando. His driver and three bodyguards are killed. Immediately, all prisoners from the RAF are isolated, searched and excluded from any contact in a "contact ban" that will be legalised by law from September 28 and that will last for more than six weeks. The Government refuses to meet the demands for liberation of 10 prisoners from the RAF.
Sep 12 - Steve Biko is killed in a South African prison.
Sep 22 - Following a shootout in Utrecht in the Netherlands, police officer Arie Kranenburg is killed and Knut Folkerts is arrested. Three months later, Knut Folkerts will be sentenced to 20 years in prison. Later, he will be extradited to Germany.
Sep 28 - In Hamburg, Wolfgang Beer, Christa Eckes and Helmut Pohl are sentenced to 4 1/2, 7 and 5 years in prison.
Sep 30 - In Stuttgart, attorney Arndt Müller is arrested. The Stuttgart attorneys office's remaining documents are seized.
Oct 13 - The Palestinian "Martyr Halimeh Commando" hijacks a Lufthansa plane with the demand for liberation of prisoners from the RAF. On October 17, flight captain Jürgen Schumann is killed. The plane is raided by a German GSG-9 squad and three of the four Palestinians are killed.
Oct 18 - In their cells in the prison of Stuttgart-Stammheim, Andreas Baader and Gudrun Ensslin are found dead, Jan Raspe is found dieing, and Irmgard Möller is found wounded.
Oct 19 - The RAF's Siegfried Hausner Commando kills Hanns Martin Schleyer.
Nov 9 - In Austria, entrepreneur Walter Palmers is kidnapped by the June 2nd Movement. He will be released for a ransom of 30 million Schillings (2.3 million Euros).
Nov 11 - Christoph Wackernagel and Gerd Schneider are arrested in Amsterdam.
Nov 12 - In an isolated cell of Munich-Stadelheim prison, Ingrid Schubert is found dead.
Dec 28 - At a trial in Stuttgart-Stammheim, Verena Becker is sentenced to life in prison.
Jan 21 - Christine Kuby is arrested in Hamburg.
Feb 26 - An eavesdrop operation by German intelligence agency BfV against nuclear physicist Klaus Traube, because of presumed sympathies with the RAF, leads to a Government crisis.
Mar 10-Apr 20 - Sixth hungerstrike of the prisoners from the RAF.
Mar 16 - In Rome, DC politician and former Prime Minister Aldo Moro is kidnapped by the Red Brigades. He will be killed on May 9 when his exchange against prisoners from the BR fail.
Apr 14 - In Germany, separating windows for visits to prisoners are decreed by law.
Apr 26 - In Stuttgart-Stammheim, Günter Sonnenberg is sentenced to two life sentences.
May 4 - Henri Curiel, supporter of several liberation movements, is killed in Paris.
May 11-12 - Sieglinde Hofmann, Brigitte Mohnhaupt, Rolf Clemens Wagner and Peter-Jürgen Boock are arrested in Yugoslavia. Wenn the German government refuses to exchange them against eight exiled Croats, they are freed on November 17. Stefan Wisniewski is arrested at Paris Orly airport.
Jun 6 - German Minister of Interior Affairs Werner Maihofer steps down after the Traube scandal. His successor is Gerhart Baum.
Jul 25 - "The hole of Celle": with explosives, a hole is blown in the wall around Celle prison. Only in 1986 the operation is revealed to be an attempt by intelligence agencies to fake a prison break and use prisoners and their contact persons to get at wanted persons. Moreover, the operation is used for a campaign for the use of coercive detention against political prisoners.
Aug 4 - Wolfgang Beer is released from prison. On November 6, he and 11 other militants occupy the Frankfurt office of press agency DPA, to transmit a statement on the then critical health situation of prioners Karl-Heinz Dellwo and Werner Hoppe. All participants in the occupation are arrested and sentenced to one year in prison.
Sep 6 - Willy-Peter Stoll is killed by two police officers in Dusseldorf.
Sep 24 - After a shootout in Dortmund, Angelika Speitel and Michael Knoll are arrested. Police officer Hans-Wilhelm Hansen is killed, Michael Knoll dies of his injuries on October 8.
Nov 1 - At a shootout near Kerkrade at the Dutch border, customs officers Dirk de Jong and Johannes Goemans are killed.
Jan 16 - After months of demonstrations in Iran, Shah Reza Pahlavi flees with his family to the USA. On February 1, Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile. After a referendum, the Islamic Republic is proclaimed on April 1.
Feb 8 - Werner Hoppe is released from prison.
Feb 16 - In Stuttgart-Stammheim, attorney Klaus Croissant is sentenced to 2 1/2 years in prison and 4 years exclusion from practicing as an attorney.
Mar 19, Apr 17 - The RAF robs banks in Darmstadt and Nuremberg.
Apr 20-Jun 26 - Seventh hungerstrike of the prisoners from the RAF.
May 2 - At a trial in Hamburg, Christine Kuby is sentenced to life in prison.
May 4 - Elisabeth von Dyck is killed by three police officers in Nuremberg.
May 31 - At a trial in Stuttgart, Irmgard Möller is sentenced to life, Bernhard Braun to 12 years in prison.
Jun 9 - At his arrest in Frankfurt, Rolf Heissler is seriously injured by a shot in the head.
Jun 25 - Bomb attack in Brussels on NATO Supreme Commander Alexander Haig by the RAF's Andreas Baader Commando. General Haig survives.
Jul 11 - At a trial in Stuttgart, Siegfried Haag and Roland Mayer are sentenced to 14 and 12 years in prison.
Jul 17 - Victory of the Sandinist Liberation Movement in Nicaragua.
Sep 25 - Helmut Pohl is released from prison.
Nov 4 - In Teheran, students occupy the US Embassy and take 66 hostages, who are only released by January 20, 1981.
Nov 19 - Following a bank robbery in Zurich and an ensuing shootout, Rolf Clemens Wagner is arrested. A passer-by is killed by a ricochet bullet.
Nov 30 - In Dusseldorf, Angelika Speitel is sentenced to life in prison.
Dec 19 - In Stuttgart, Siegfried Haag is sentenced to 15 years in prison.
Jan 31 - In Stuttgart-Stammheim, attorneys Arndt Müller and Armin Newerla are sentenced to four years and eight months and three years and six months, respectively.
Mar 7 - Ron Augustin is released from prison and expelled to Holland. He is not allowed back into Germany until 1994.
Apr 3 - During a raid against the RAF near Neuss, sound technician Manfred Perder is killed by accident by a BKA sharpshooter.
May 5 - In Paris, Sieglinde Hofmann is arrested together with four women of the June 2nd Movement: Ingrid Barabass, Karin Kamp-Münichow, Carola Magg, Regina Nicolai.
May 6 - A demonstration against the army in Bremen is the prelude to a large antiwar movement which will last until the second half of the 1980s. One of the highlights will be the demonstration of close to 300,000 people against US president Reagan's visit to the NATO Summit on 10 June 1982 in Bonn.
Jun 2 - The June 2nd Movement declares its merger with the RAF. Three prisoners from the June 2nd Movement dissociate themselves from this decision.
Jul 25 - Wolfgang Beer and Juliane Plambeck die in a car crash near Bietigheim-Bissingen.
Jul 31 - In Stuttgart, Knut Folkerts is sentenced to two life sentences.
Sep 5 - In Dusseldorf, Christof Wackernagel and Gerd Schneider are sentenced to 15 years in prison each.
Sep 22 - Beginning of the war between Iraq and Iran, which will last until August 20, 1988, and will take more than one million lives.
Sep 26 - In Dusseldorf, Rolf Clemens Wagner is sentenced to life in prison.
Jan 20 - Ronald Reagan becomes President of the USA. He appoints William Casey as Director of the CIA.
Jan 22 - Peter-Jürgen Boock is arrested in Hamburg. Ever since, he is instrumental in spreading crazy stories on the RAF.
Feb 6 - Eighth hungerstrike by more than one hundred political prisoners in Germany. The hungerstrike is stopped on April 16, when the Government promises that no prisoner will remain in isolation. The same day the announcement is made that prisoner Sigurd Debus died.
Mar 1-Oct 3 - Hungerstrike of the prisoners from the IRA in Northern Ireland. In this hungerstrike, 10 prisoners die: Bobby Sands, Francis Hughes, Patsy O'Hara, Raymond McCreesh, Joe McDonnell, Martin Hurson, Kevin Lynch, Kieran Doherty, Thomas McElwee and Mickey Devine.
May 11 - The Hessen Minister of Economic Affairs, Heinz Herbert Karry, is killed by an RZ commando.
Aug 31 - Bomb attack at the US Airforce's European Headquarters in Ramstein by the RAF's Sigurd Debus Commando. 14 persons are injured.
Sep 15 - Grenade attack in Heidelberg on US Commander Frederick Kroesen by the RAF's Gudrun Ensslin Commando. General Kroesen's armoured car is hit, but he survives.
Oct 15 - Start of the mobilisation against the Frankfurt airport extension "Startbahn West", which will last till 1987. At the construction site there will be demonstrations of up to 150,000 people.
Dec 4 - In Dusseldorf, Stefan Wisniewski is sentenced to life in prison.
May 1 - Distribution of the RAF's (fifth) journal "Guerilla, Resistance and Antiimperialist Front".
Jun 13-Sep 13 - Occupation of Beirut by the Israeli army.
Jun 16 - In Frankfurt, Sieglinde Hofmann is sentenced to 15 years in prison. The women arrested with her are sentenced to 5 to 6 years in prison.
Aug 21 - In Lebanon, the Multinational Force is formed by NATO troops from the USA, France, Italy and the UK, to control the PLO's retreat from Lebanon.
Sep 15-16 - Massacre in the Palestinian refugee camps of Shabra and Chatila.
Sep 15 - The RAF robs a bank in Bochum.
Oct 1 - In Germany, a Coalition Government of CDU (Christian Democrats) and FDP (Liberals) is formed, with Helmut Kohl as Chancelor.
Nov 10 - In Dusseldorf, Rolf Heissler is sentenced to two life sentences and 15 years in prison.
Nov 11-16 - Brigitte Mohnhaupt, Heidi Schulz and Christian Klar are arrested at forestry depots near Frankfurt and Hamburg. In all, police find eight depots with weaponry and papers.
Mar 1 - Gisela Dutzi is arrested in Darmstadt.
Mar 13 - In Dusseldorf Heidi Schulz and Rolf Clemens Wagner are sentenced to life in prison.
Apr 18 - In Beirut, 63 people die in a bomb attack against the US Embassy. In 1983, US Marines are engaged several times in fights with Lebanese militia forces. In August, the Sixth Fleet bombs Druse and Shiite positions.
Oct 23 - In Lebanon, two bases of the Multinational Force are destroyed by simultaneous bomb attacks in which 241 US Marines and other US Soldiers and 58 French paratroopers are killed.
Mar 26 - The RAF robs a bank in Wurzburg.
May 7 - In Stuttgart, Peter-Jürgen Boock is sentenced to three life sentences and 15 years in prison, which will later be reduced to one life sentence.
Jun 22 - Manuela Happe is arrested in Deizisau near Stuttgart.
Jul 2 - In Frankfurt, Helmut Pohl, Ingrid Jakobsmeier, Christa Eckes, Stefan Frey, Ernst Volker Staub and Barbara Ernst are arrested.
Nov 5 - The RAF captures several hand guns, rifles and ammunition with a hold-up at an arms shop in Maxdorf near Ludwigshafen.
December - The first issue of the journal "Fighting Together" is published. The journal contains statements by the RAF and "antiimperialist resistance" groups, and will be continued till August 1990 as a clandestine project. After many demonstrations and occupations, like for the support of the prisoners' demands, legal militants increasingly organise themselves in clandestine structures and, particularly between 1983 and 1990, commit bomb attacks of their own as well.
Dec 4 - Ninth hungerstrike of political prisoners in Germany, until February 3, 1985.
Dec 18 - The RAF's Jan Raspe Commando parks a car loaded with explosives near the NATO Officers School in Oberammergau. The explosives are defused before they can explode.
Jan 15 - Joint statement of the RAF and the French Action Directe: "For the Unitity of the Revolutionaries in Western Europe".
Jan 20 - At an attempted bomb attack on the German Air and Space Research Institute in Stuttgart, a bomb explodes prematurely and kills militant Johannes Thimme. Claudia Wannersdorfer is injured and arrested.
Jan 25 - Action Directe's Elisabeth von Dyck Commando kills the Chief of Arms Trade in the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, General René Audran, in La Celle-Saint-Cloud near Paris.
Feb 1 - The RAF's Patsy O'Hara Commando kills MTU's Chairman of the Board Ernst Zimmermann in Gauting near Munich.
Mar 13 - In Dusseldorf, Heidi Schulz and Rolf Clemens Wagner are sentenced to two life sentences each.
Apr 2 - In Stuttgart-Stammheim, Brigitte Mohnhaupt and Christian Klar are sentenced to five life sentences each.
Jun 2 - At an attempted bomb attack on the Hannover Messe, a bomb explodes prematurely and kills Jürgen Pemöller.
Jul 3 - In Offenbach, Ingrid Barabass and Mareille Schmegner are arrested.
Aug 8 - Bomb attack at the Rhein-Main Airbase near Frankfurt by the joint RAF and AD's George Jackson Commando. One soldier and one employee are killed and 11 persons are injured. In order to obtain access to the Airbase, Soldier Edward Pimental is killed for his ID card.
Dec 6 - In Stuttgart, Claudia Wannersdorfer is sentenced to 8 years in prison.
Jan 31-Feb 3 - The Congress "Antiimperialist and Anticapitalist Resistance in Western Europe" takes place in Frankfurt with about 1,000 participants.
Feb 5 - In Munich, Ernst Volker Staub is sentenced to 8 years in prison.
Mar 20 - In Stuttgart, Christa Eckes and Manuela Happe are sentenced to 8 and 15 years in prison .
Apr 15 - The US Airforce and the US Navy carry out airstrikes against Libya. The operation is presented as retaliation for Libya's support to certain Palestinian groups. The bomb attack at discotheque La Belle in Berlin on April 5 is particularly mentioned, although the attack is later exposed as a CIA set up.
Jul 9 - The RAF's Mara Cagol Commando kills Siemens President Karl-Heinz Beckurts and his driver with a remotely controlled bomb on a road near Munich.
Aug 2 - Eva Haule and her counterparts from antiimperialist resistance groups, Luitgard Hornstein and Christian Kluth, are arrested in Russelsheim.
Oct 10 - The RAF's Ingrid Schubert Commando kills Foreign Department Director Gerold von Braunmühl in Bonn.
Nov 17 - Action Directe kills Renault Chairman of the Board Georges Besse in Paris.
Dec 23 - In Dusseldorf, Helmut Pohl is sentenced to life and Stefan Frey to 4 1/2 years in prison.
Feb 21 - Near Orleans, South of Paris, AD members Jann-Marc Rouillan, Nathalie Ménigon, Joëlle Aubron and Georges Cipriani are arrested.
Mar 16 - In Dusseldorf, Rolf Clemens Wagner is sentenced to life in prison.
Dec 10 - Start of the Intifada, a mass rebellion of Palestinians against Israeli occupation, resulting in an international boycot campaign and acts of solidarity. Officially ended September 1993, the Intifada gained momentum again from 2000.
Dec 18 - Andrea Sievering and Rico Prauss, members of antiimperialist resistance groups, are arrested in Dusseldorf.
Mar 29 - ANC Representative Dulcie September is killed in Paris on the order of South African intelligence agency BOSS.
Jun 28 - In Stuttgart, Luitgart Hornstein, Christian Kluth and Eva Haule are sentenced to 4 to 15 years in prison.
Sep 20 - Attempted attack on Federal Finance Secretary Hans Tietmeyer in Bonn by the RAF's Khaled Aker Commando.
September - Joint statement of the RAF and the Red Brigade's BR-PCC on their "front" policy.
Nov 30 - Manfred Grashof and Klaus Jünschke are released from prison.
Jan 18 - In Stuttgart, Andrea Sievering and Rico Prauss are sentenced to 9 years in prison each.
Jan 20 - George H W Bush becomes President of the USA.
Jan 20 - In Dusseldorf, Thomas Richter, Thomas Thoene, Barbara Perau and Norbert Hofmeier, members of antiimperialist resistance groups, are sentenced to 4 to years in prison.
Feb 1-May 14 - Tenth hungerstrike of political prisoners in Germany.
Nov 9 - The fall of the Berlin wall. The reunification of Germany follows on October 3, 1990.
Nov 30 - The RAF's Wolfgang Beer Commando kills Deutsche Bank Chairman of the Board Alfred Herrhausen with a bomb attack in Bad Homburg. His driver is injured.
Nov 30 - Verena Becker is released from prison.
Dec 7 - Ute Hladki und Holger Deilke, supposedly members of an antiimperialist resistance group, are arrested near Sudermarsch in Northern Germany.
Feb 11 - In South Africa, Nelson Mandela is released from prison.
Mar 2 - Attempted attack on the Minister of Agriculture, Ignaz Kiechle, in Bonn. The RAF is made responsible but denies.
Jun 5 - The RAF captures 325,000 Marks (166,000 Euros) by robbing a supermarket in Duisburg.
Jun 6-18 - Susanne Albrecht, Inge Viett, Werner Lotze, Christine Dümlein, Ekkehard von Seckendorff, Monika Helbing, Sigrid Sternebeck, Ralf Friedrich, Silke Maier-Witt and Henning Beer are arrested in Eastern Germany. Between June 3, 1991 and August 26, 1992, they are sentenced to 6 to 13 years in prison. Most of them agree to be "Crown Witnesses" for the Prosecution in further trials against prisoners from the RAF. In 1994 and 1995, Christian Klar, Heidi Schulz, Sieglinde Hofmann, Rolf Clemens Wagner and Ingrid Jakobsmeier are again convicted because of their testimonies.
Jun 30 - Angelika Speitel is released from prison.
Jul 27 - Attempted attack in Bonn on the Secretary of Interior Affairs Hans Neusel by the RAF's José Manuel Sévillano Commando.
Jan 15 - In Stuttgart, Luitgart Hornstein is sentenced to 9 years in prison.
Jan 16 - Following the occupation of Kuwait by Iraq in August 1990 and the massing of 500,000 US troops in the Middle East, the US Airforce attacks Iraq for two weeks with heavy air strikes, before an invasion with US troops is started that will last until April 12. In September 1996 and December 1998, the US Airforce will again strike with bomb raids over Iraq.
Feb 13 - The RAF fires 250 rounds at the US Embassy in Bonn with a Commando which it first calls after Vincenzo Spano and subsequently after Ciro Rizatto.
Apr 1 - The RAF's Ulrich Wessel Commando kills the Chairman of the Privatisation Office for Eastern Germany (Treuhandanstalt) Detlev Karsten Rohwedder in Dusseldorf.
Dec 26 - Official dissolution of the Soviet Union.
January - The RZ declare the end of their struggle.
Apr 10 - The RAF makes a statement of "incision", in which it declares to stop its escalation of attacks "on leading figures from state and industry".
May 15 - Günter Sonnenberg is released from prison.
Jun 20 - Following a demonstration in May at the Dusseldorf Justice Department, in Bonn some 2,000 people demonstrate for the immediate release of the political prisoners.
Nov 17 - Bernd Rössner is released from prison.
Jan 20 - Bill Clinton becomes President of the USA.
Mar 27 - Prior to the opening of a new high security prison in Weiterstadt near Darmstadt, it is blown up by the RAF's Katharina Hammerschmidt Commando.
Apr 10 - Communist ANC leader Chris Hani is killed by supporters of the apartheid regime in South Africa.
Jun 27 - In a shootout following an arrest operation in Bad Kleinen, Wolfgang Grams and GSG-9 officer Michael Newrzella are killed. Birgit Hogefeld is arrested. Because of a series of contradictions during the operation, Minister for Interior Affairs Rudolf Seiters steps down and Chief Federal Prosecutor Alexander von Stahl is fired. The operation was possible because secret agent Klaus Steinmetz had managed to get a contact with the RAF. At the same time, attempts were made to initiate negociations with the government to come to a deal for the prisoners.
Oct 18 - In Stuttgart, Ingrid Jakobsmeier is sentenced to 15 years in prison.
Oct 28 - In a statement for the prisoners from the RAF, Brigitte Mohnhaupt declares their split with the remaining group outside and some of the prisoners, because of the attempted deal with the government.
Nov 24 - In Dusseldorf, Rolf Clemens Wagner is sentenced to 12 additional years in prison.
Apr 28 - In another trial in Frankfurt, Eva Haule is sentenced to life in prison.
Jul 27-Aug 3 - Limited hungerstrike by prisoners from the RAF for the liberation of Irmgard Möller.
Sep 5- In another trial in Dusseldorf, Heidi Schulz is once more sentenced to life in prison.
Dec 1 - Irmgard Möller is released from prison.
Feb 21 - Christine Kuby is released from prison.
Apr 25-26 - Manuela Happe and Lutz Taufer are released from prison.
May 10 - Karl-Heinz Dellwo is released from prison.
Aug 6-8 - Hungerstrike by prisoners from the RAF to support the international campaign for Mumia Abu-Jamal.
Sep 26 - In another trial in Stuttgart, Sieglinde Hoffman is sentenced to life in prison.
Oct 16 - Knut Folkerts is released from prison.
May 10 - Hanna Krabbe is released from prison.
Nov 5 - In Frankfurt, Birgit Hogefeld is sentenced to life. Her release is fixed as not earlier than 2011.
Nov 19 - In Frankfurt, Souhaila Andrawes is sentenced to 12 years in prison for the hijack of the Lufthansa plane in October 1977.
Jan 24 - Inge Viett is released from prison.
Mar 13 - Peter Jürgen Boock is released from prison.
Apr 20 - RAF statement in which the organisation declares it dissolution.
May 19 - Helmut Pohl is released from prison.
Oct 19 - Heidi Schulz is released from prison. Her official pardon is granted on February 26, 2002.
Oct 27 - In Germany, a Coalition Government is formed by the Green Party and the SPD, with Gerhard Schröder as Chancelor, Joschka Fischer as Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Otto Schily as Minister of Interior Affairs.
Mar 1 - Stefan Wisniewski is released from prison.
May 5 - Sieglinde Hofmann is released from prison.
Jul 20 - For the attack on an armored security car in Duisburg and the escape with half a million Euros, fugitives from the RAF are held responsible.
Sep 15 - Police kill Horst Meyer in Vienna and arrest Andrea Klump. Both were searched for presumed membership in the RAF. Andrea Klump will be sentenced to 12 years on Sep 28, 2004. Between 1996 and 2003 four more people who were wanted by the police turn themselves in. The charges against them have been dropped. Another three persons are still on the wanted list.
Oct 26 - Rolf Heissler is released from prison.
Dec 10 - Rolf Clemens Wagner is released from prison.
Mar 25 - Brigitte Mohnhaupt is released from prison.
May 7 - German President Horst Köhler refuses to grant pardon to Christian Klar. Over the entire year, an unprecedented smear campaign takes place in the German media with regard to the 30th anniversary of the "German Automn", which leads to new accusations and legal procedures against former prisoners from the RAF.
Aug 17 - Eva Haule is released from prison.
Dec 19 - Christian Klar is released from prison.
Aug 28 - Verena Becker is arrested and kept in detention till December 23 on the allegation of having participated in the 1977 attack on Federal Prosecutor Buback.
May – Statement by “some who at different moments were in the RAF” on the on-going mediacampaign started in 2007 and the charges with which they are to be coerced into testifying.
Sep 30 - Start of the trial against Verena Becker for the Buback-attack.
June 20 – Birgit Hogefeld is released from prison.
July 6 – Verena Becker is sentenced to four years in prison for support to the Buback-attack. Over the next three months, several media are trying to initiate a new smear campaign regarding the RAF’s history, without much avail.